"Haeckel: mentiroso, ateu e evolucionista", Mats:
«Provavelmente muitos já viram fotos como esta.
O que muitos não sabem é que estas fotos são FALSAS. O evolucionista Haeckel usou-as como “evidência”para a evolução.» ...Observações
- As imagens não são fotos - são de desenhos: The History of Creation, Pl.III.
- Mats insinua que os cientistas evolucionistas são mentirosos, cometendo falácias:
- Guilt by association: «Guilt by Association is the attempt to discredit an idea based upon disfavored people or groups associated with it.»;
- Genetic fallacy: «The Genetic Fallacy is the most general fallacy of irrelevancy involving the origins or history of an idea.» ... «In contrast, the value of many scientific ideas can be objectively evaluated by established techniques, so that the origin or history of the idea is irrelevant to its value.»
"Monism as Connecting Religion and Science", Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel:«The monistic idea of God, which alone is compatible with our present knowledge of nature, recognises the divine spirit in all things. It can never recognise in God a "personal being," or, in other words, an individual of limited extension in space, or even of human form. God is everywhere. As Giordano Bruno has it: "There is one spirit in all things, and nobody is so small that it does not contain a part of the divine substance whereby it is animated."» ...
«In the hope that the defence and promotion of these may still be continued, I conclude my monistic Confession of Faith with the words: "May God, the Spirit of the Good, the Beautiful, and the True, be with us."»
(C) um desenho feito por Bischoff;
(B) e (D) desenhos feitos por Ecker;
"Haeckel's ABC of evolution and development", Michael K. Richardson and Gerhard Keuck:«Haeckel’s comparative embryology was evolutionary but non-quantitative. It was based on developmental sequences, and treated heterochrony as a sequence change. It is not always clear whether he believed in recapitulation of single characters or entire stages. The Biogenetic Law is supported by several recent studies – if applied to single characters only.» ... «While some criticisms of the drawings are legitimate, others are more tendentious.» ...
«The idea that new adult stages are added terminally, then telescoped or pushed-back into the embryonic stages of descendants, is assumed to be part of the Haeckelian package» ... «and can reasonably be inferred from his alphabetical analogy and some of his writings.» ...
«Haeckel’s drawings, like some of his ideas, change through subsequent editions of his works. In later editions of Anthropogenie, Haeckel modifies and elaborates the set of eight species from 1874 – presumably in response to criticisms, and to accommodate new data. He takes more trouble to acknowledge, in text and pictures, that there are differences among embryos of different species.» ...
«As in some other cases, Haeckel admitted his mistake. In his ‘ Apologetisches Schlußwort ’ to Anthropogenie (Haeckel, 1891) he acknowledged the truth of this ‘ story of the three woodcuttings ’ saying that it was ‘ an imprudent folly ’ due to lack of time when preparing the few illustrations for the NaturlicheSchoW pfungsgeschichte» ...
«we have noted (Richardson & Keuck, 2001) that the embryos His shows are late ones, and have already started to develop the differences illustrated by Haeckel in the bottom two rows of his plate (Fig. 3). In addition to these staging problems (see Fig. 7) His’s drawings may contain tendentious errors (Richardson and Keuck, 2001)» ...
«There are other illustrations of human embryos in the Ecker plates which more closely match the Haeckel picture. We think it possible that Haeckel’s ‘ distorted ’ human embryo may in fact be a rather faithful copy of one of these other pictures»
«His claimed that Haeckel had copied the human embryo badly from Ecker (B) and that the eyes were enlarged and the tail lengthened in the process. But note that embryo D, from the same Ecker publication, is a more plausible source (its tail is longer, and its eyes larger, than those in B ; furthermore, unlike B, it is the same size as the Haeckel copy, according to the measurements given in the legend). If this is the case, then at least some of His’s objections to these particular Haeckel drawings are removed.»
(C) um desenho feito por Bischoff;
(B) e (D) desenhos feitos por Ecker;
"The riddle of the universe at the close of the nineteenth century", Erns Haeckel:
«Until that time the term "evolution" had been taken to mean exclusively, both in zoology and botany, the development of individual organisms embryology, or metamorphic science. I established the opposite view, that this history of the embryo (ontogeny) must be completed by a second, equally valuable, and closely connected branch of thought the history of the race (phylogeny). Both these branches of evolutionary science are, in my opinion, in the closest causal connection ; this arises from the reciprocal action of the laws of heredity and adaptation ; it has a precise and comprehensive expression in my * fundamental law of biogeny."» ... «That theory makes it possible to follow nature's law of unity in the innumerable variations of animal embryology ; it gives us for their ancestral history a common derivation from a simple primitive stem form.» ...
"Iconoclasts of Evolution: Haeckel, Behe, Wells & the Ontogeny of a Fraud":
«Millipedes have one pair of legs per segment as adults, but as larvae have only six legs (far left figure labeled 19), like their more derived relatives, the insects. That insects would, in their adult stage, take the embryological form of a “lower” animal is contrary to recapitulationism.» ... «Haeckel thought he found the mechanism of evolution: “Phylogenesis is the mechanical cause of ontogenesis” (Haeckel, 1874, 5; cited in Gould, 1977, 1978).» ... «Haeckel promoted recapitulationism as intrinsically tied to evolution. In his 1874 treatise he proposed that all embryological innovations are added to the developmental sequence terminally» ... «In order for this sequence of events to remain in the proper order, there could be no shuffling of the sequence. Accordingly, Haeckel believed the embryo was immune to selection. If this were true, then closely related animals would pass through an identical, identifiable stage of development, the phylotypic stage, which corresponded to the strict recapitulation of their most recent common ancestor. Haeckel pointed to the existence of this stage in his suspect drawings of vertebrate embryos.»
"Berkely University of California", Early Evolution and Development: Ernst Haeckel:«Haeckel believed that, over the course of time, evolution added new stages to produce new life forms. Thus, embryonic development was actually a record of evolutionary history.» ... «Haeckel was so convinced of his Biogenetic Law that he was willing to bend evidence to support it. The truth is that the development of embryos does not fit into the strict progression that Haeckel claimed.» ... «Haeckel's final downfall came with the rise of genetics and the modern synthesis. Haeckel, after all, was promoting a basically Lamarckian notion that evolution had a built-in direction towards "higher" forms. But genes, it was soon discovered, controlled the rate and direction of embryonic development. Individual genes can mutate and cause different changes to the way embryos grow — either adding new stages at any point along their path, or taking them away, speeding up development or slowing it down.»
"Heterochrony and the Phylotypic Period", Michael K. Richardson:
«Haeckel’s ‘‘stage 1’’ is described as having visceral clefts but no limb anlagen (the plate for mammals is reproduced here in Fig. 2, top row). However, his stage 1 embryos are not consistent with other data on the development of these species. The condition of the limb fields, somites, and visceral clefts indicates that his drawings are a mixture of criteria from different stages.» ...
«Much of the controversy relating to developmental timing has arisen from confusing the putative phylotypic stage with Haeckel’s idea of a conserved stage. There is certainly a time in development when the main organ primordia appear and there appears to be striking conservation in the patterns of gene expression at this time. However, this stage shows rather poor conservation of morphology because structures appear at different times in different species»
Embriões - Fotos
Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy > Digital Library of Dolphin Development > Hindlimb Development in a Dolphin: «Modern dolphins, newborns as well as adults, lack any external signs of hindlimbs. However, in dolphin embryos, a small hindlimb bud does develop and grow (circled in the embryos above), but then (in a later embryonic stage, on the right) the hindlimb bud reduces again.»
Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy > Digital Library of Dolphin Development > Nose to blowhole: «In development, the nose opening shifts from the tip of the snout (arrow in left embryo) to its position on top of the head.»
Evidence Of Common Ancestry of Cetaceans and Certain Species of Land Mammals: «It would appear from these two specimens that the position of the nostril has changed over time and thus we would expect to see intermediate forms.»
Scientific American > Mutant Chicken Grows Alligator Like Teeth: «Working late in the developmental biology lab one night, Matthew Harris of the University of Wisconsin noticed that the beak of a mutant chicken embryo he was examining had fallen off. Upon closer examination of the snubbed beak, he found tiny bumps and protuberances along its edge that looked like teeth--alligator teeth to be specific. The accidental discovery revealed that chickens retain the ability to grow teeth, even though birds lost this feature long ago.» ... «In the early 19th century, Saint-Hillaire observed that developing parrots have tiny bumps on their beaks that resemble teeth, something he ascribed to modern animals deriving from more basic primitive forms.»
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